What is Varicose Veins?
Venous system of lower limbs have superficial and deep venous system which are connected to each other mainly by Saphenous vein to femoral vein and popliteal vein and by multiple perforators. Long and short saphenous veins form the superficial venous system. Blood from these veins and perforators are pumped into deep veins which further takes it to heart. Reflux of blood in absence of pumping mechanism is prevented by valves present at various levels in the veins. Varicosities or tortuosity of superficial venous system of lower limbs are caused due to incompetency or malfunctioning of these valves. These vessels get significantly dilated and sometimes are seen as serpiginous tubules with naked eyes under skin.
What are the causes of Varicose Veins?
• Long standing jobs
• Lack of exercise
What if not treated?
• Bleeding- spontaneous or to touch
• Thrombophlebitis- Inflammation of veins- Pain
• Venous ulcers
• Thrombus/ Clot formation
• Pulmonary Embolism
• Cardiac Embolism
• Brain embolism
How is it treated?
EVLT (Laser Treatment) is done under local anesthesia as a day care procedure. Surgery is now obsolete for treatment of varicose veins. Under ultrasound guidanceneedle is punctured into the vein through which laser fibre is passed. Laser ablation seals the vein resolving dilatation and tortuosity. This technique is repeated if there are multiple dilated veins. The entire length of saphenous vein is treated using this method.
Graphical representation of veins and its valves Vs Varicose veins. In varicose veins the valves remain open causing dilatation of vein.